What is a Postage Stamp?

A postage stamp is a small piece of paper which is evidence to the government that you’ve paid for the mail service. You pay for the mail service, and you’re handed with a small piece of paper, kind of paper sticker, which you’ve to stick to the envelope of the letter. Now You might be thinking that what’s so special about these stamps, these are just a piece of paper. Though it’s a piece of paper, each stamp has a character on it which shows national designation.

This ranges from famous traditional figures to great cultural representations. It also has the country’s name printed adjacent to the designation. It holds valuable knowledge with regards to the nature of the mail, and it expedites it delivers till it reaches its destination.

The hardest thing is to locate from where you can buy these stamps, however there is a good guide on where one can buy stamps , you can read it.

And, this paper is not only the base of the stamp, but it has also been consolidated into the stamp’s design, which provides security against fraud and helps in the automation of the postal delivery system. It’s actually little more complicated than you might think especially if you’re a teenager because today’s young generation don’t much about it. The first time I saw a postage stamp, I was a school kid. It was my mother that was sending a letter to his brother. She purchased the stamp from the post office. She had to lick the stamp to make it stick to the seal, but now you can use these stamps like a sticker,

…….Remember, there are different types of stamps–for example, definitive, commemorative, and special–and formats such as booklets, sheets, and coils.

The definitive stamps are the most regular and popular. These stamps are less than an inch square and available in bulk. These stamps are always available unless they are sold out, or the stamp machine stops working.

Commemorative stamps work as a memorial of an event or person which gives importance to the history or an event of a country. It is printed once, in relatively small quantities (typically 50 to 100 million in the U.S.), and eliminated from the sale (if not sold out) after a specified time, usually about a year.

Special stamps are used on special occasions like holidays, Christmas and also for international rate, Priority Mail, and Express Mail and they normally on sale just for a limited time.

Stamps are not only used as a receipt of the fee, but it gives a lot of freedom to the postman, and company. You’ve to write the letter and mail it, but there is a lot more happening on the working end. They have to check the information of the receiver, and they also have to check if the mail is to be sent by boats, automobiles, trains or airplanes.

……..They’ve to check if the letter is using premium or regular stamp.

………They’ve to check what the latter actually contains to determine its importance.

So, to make things easier postage stamps use promo on them. It makes the work of postmen simple. First, of, they split the regular post stamps from the premium post stamps with the Promo. It is done to provide first class experience to that particular mail and making them reach quickly to the receiver. The example of such stamps is express mail stamp and special delivery stamp. People can also opt-in for personalized post stamps which allow them to attach their picture which gives it more sentimental value.

All these stamp types help the post-handler person to categorize them quickly which results into postage of these letters as soon as possible, so it’s a win win situation for everyone.

And, one more thing, each country has a variation in their postage stamps like their personal, national colors and design which changes throughout the time. One might not be interested knowing about it, but for stamp collector, it’s always an interesting topic to talk about. Sending letters through snail mails have been mostly obsolete, there are still a lot of different essential items to be shipped to distant locations other than letters, and for this purpose, postage stamps are still much-needed markers.

If you need a video explanation for knowing what is a stamp do watch out below given video

Corporate Wellness

Start a Wellness Program for Your Employees Today

The benefits to starting a health promotion program are many.

A few employee wellness tips to get personnel started on the path to a healthier lifestyle –

1. Look around, and determine when personnel lead a healthy lifestyle before starting an employee wellness program.

o  Exactly how many employees dash outside during lunchtime for a smoke break?

o  Would a tobacco use cessation program help?

o  Precisely how often do the junk food-laden vending machines have to be replenished?

o  Is anybody exercising or taking benefit of local walking trails as part of their healthful living goals?

The answers to these questions will give businesses a better idea of the worker wellness program that’s right for them.

2. Survey employees to determine their healthful lifestyle habits.

o  Are they exercising regularly?

o  Eat three square meals a day?

Have regular physicals? Really? Then what planet are they on?

Because we’d love to visit! A health promotion program benefits most businesses because workers do not have the time or energy to stay on top of wellness concerns at work or when they leave the office to go home.

3. Give health promotion programs a big kick-off with a healthy living “fair.” Provide employees free flu shots, blood pressure (BP) checks, cholesterol screenings, body/fat ratio assessments, use of tobacco cessation programs and free mammograms- and contact the local hospital, because there’s plenty more where this came from.

Businesses keep their personnel hopping during the week. Give personnel a chance to amp up their healthy lifestyle on the company dime. A wellness program is an added benefit that personnel get for working for the company!

4. Incent to live- offer cash for workforce to lose weight, commit to a use of tobacco cessation program and normally enjoy a healthier lifestyle.

Make certain to encourage humankind’s innate competitive nature by offering prizes for wellness worker “winners.” And, encourage a healthier lifestyle by sponsoring staff who want to enter a local 5K for charity race, run a marathon or play a sport.

Wellness Program Return on Investment

A lot of employers, as part of their efforts to contain rising health care costs, are starting wellness programs variously described as wellness, lifestyle programs, health and productivity management, population health management and, simply, wellness programs.

The purpose of this article is to consider whether such health promotion programs improve health. When so, do they in turn reduce utilization of healthcare services and reduce healthcare expenditures?

The popular media have done much to promote the theory of corporate wellness. Last year, In Business –  Madison1 magazine printed a story accompanied by a table reporting an impressive range of Return On Investment (ROI) –

Return on Investment (Per dollar ROI for lifestyle programs)

o  Coors $6.15

o  Kennecott $5.78

o  Equitable Life $5.52

o  Citibank $4.56

o  General Mills $3.90

o  Travelers $3.40

o  Motorola $3.15

o  PepsiCo $3.00

o  Unum Life $1.81

Source –  2004 T.E. Brennan Business, as reported

Would these Return On Investments stand up to rigorous empirical analysis of the data? What factors produce such disparate returns among these wellness programs? and does the published literature, subject to colleague review of scientific methods, support the Return On Investments stated here?

Health and Productivity Management

Illness and injury associated with an unhealthful lifestyle or modifiable risk factors is reported to account for at least 25% of employee health care expenditures.

The most significant of these risk factors are stress, tobacco use, overweight or obesity, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol use, and poor nutritional habits.

Over the past two decades, a variety of groups at the local, state, and national levels have promoted the theory that health risk reduction and care management programs can improve worker health, and that worksite health education, health risk management, and benefit counseling should complement standard health insurance benefits.

The intensity of wellness programs range from bulletin board, brochure or newsletter information to on-site fitness facilities, health risk reduction classes, and personal lifestyle change coaching.

Wellness programs today often include a health risk assessment  to evaluate each staff member’s modifiable risk factors of illness. Program coordinators then target interventions to those that are at increased risk through personal communications and individual follow-up.

Robust health promotion programs might include classes on health risk reduction and job safety, fitness and exercise activities, health club memberships, and reductions in co-payments or premiums for personnel who adhere to advised medical screening guidelines.

Along with this, some businesss are restructuring health benefits and encouraging employees’ cost-sensitivity when accessing healthcare.5 These changes are intended to reduce employees’ need for and utilization of healthcare, yielding reduced group medical care costs.

Demonstrated reductions in healthcare expenditures should then provide businesss with a powerful bargaining chip in negotiating lower health insurance premiums during future terms.

Evidence basis –  A range of Return On Investment (ROI) estimates

The empirical research has produced results as varied as the well-liked media on ROI. Nevertheless, evidence continues to grow that well-designed and well-resourced wellness and disease prevention programs provide multi-faceted payback on investment.

Peer-reviewed evaluations and meta analyses show that Return On Investment (ROI) is achieved through improved employee health, decreased benefit expense, and enhanced productivity.

o  Goetzel and coworkers, in their meta-analysis of two dozen articles summarizing economic investigations of health and productivity management programs, found an typical return of $3.14 per $1 invested in traditional health promotion programs.  The Return On Investment (ROI) estimates for the individual health promotion programs ranged from $1.49 to $13.7,

o  Aldana reviewed 72 articles and concluded that health promotion programs achieve an average ROI of $3.48 when considering healthcare costs alone, $5.82 per $1 when examining absenteeism, and $4.30 when both outcomes are considered.

o  Ozminkowski and collagues conducted a 38 month case study of 23,000 participants in Citibank, N.A.’s health promotion program and stated that within a 2 year period, Citibank realized a Return On Investment between $4.56 and $4.73.10

Follow-up studies found improvements in the risk profiles of participants, with the high-risk group improving more than the “usual care” group1 then of more intensive wellness programming.

o  Chapman’s 2004 meta-evaluation of 42 studies, ranking overall validity of the studies, reports cost-benefit ratios from $2.05-$4.64.

In addition to immediately quantifiable cost reductions, scientists have announced a variety of spin-off benefits –  greater productivity, intellectual capacity, and reductions in disability12 and absenteeism.9,13,14,15

Such wellness programs may also have positive effects on worker perceptions of the business and worker morale, even among nonparticipants.  These outcomes go beyond savings in direct health care costs to provide non-health related Return On Investment.

Tailoring health promotion program to maximize Return On Investment (ROI) Health promotion programs aim to reduce the health risks of staff members at high risk while maintaining the health status of those at low risk.

A variety of disease management interventions are available to fit the specific risk profiles of various workplaces. Insurers and businesses now seek to calibrate their interventions in order to achieve optimal risk reduction and costeffectiveness.

In 2001, University of Michigan researchers reported on stable trends in healthcare costs for over 2 million current and former employees in an 18 year data set.

The mean cost increase per risk factor gained ($350) was found to be more than double the mean cost decrease per eliminated risk factor ($150).

In other words, increases in costs when groups of staff moved from low risk to high risk were much greater than the decreases in costs when groups moved from high risk to low risk. Their conclusion –  Programs designed to keep healthful people healthful will likely provide the greatest return on investment.

On the contrary, Pelletier’s meta-analysis and other health promotion program evaluations18 suggest that individualized risks reduction for high-risk employees within the context of comprehensive health promotion programming is the crucial element in achieving positive clinical and cost outcomes in workplace interventions.


Several factors might affect the impact of various wellness programs and the ultimate ROI, including cultural and environmental factors, workforce demographics, level of participation and longevity of the wellness program.

Most cost-benefit studies have been conducted in big businesses with more than fifty personnel. But scientists have shown that similar results may be acquired by small businesses with as few as five personnel actively involved in a well-managed wellness program.

Various studies also suggest that even relatively modest levels of participation can achieve substantial wellness program impact. Contrary to reports by the well-liked media that such wellness programs require more than 70% participation, published reports of at least one case showed positive Return On Investment with 51% participation.

Length of intervention appears to be a more salient variable –  an impact on health costs ordinarily requires three-to five years of wellness programming.

Future developments

Despite the abundance of positive wellness program evaluations, several caveats remain. Negative results are less likely to be announced or published, hence biasing the Return On Investment upward.

Uncertainty persists regarding the specific impact of the various health promotion program components. But as these health promotion programs take hold, further research and evaluation will enable fine-tuning of health promotion program investments.

Meanwhile, the preponderance of data and the strength of the published research stand for a positive ROI for wellness programs.

In truth, the corporation case for such wellness programs is now well enough defined that some insurance brokers offer discounted rates to businesses that institute or subscribe to wellness programs.

Future questions will focus on how to best to combine robust and focused interventions, the intensity of elements, and how to calibrate the dose-response model to achieve a target Return On Investment (ROI).

Here, employers, personnel, and researchers will need to collaborate to define mutual goals for both clinical and cost outcomes.

Designing a Health Promotion Program

Five reasons to have a wellness program

1   The U.S. spends more dollars on healthcare than any other nation yet we are not the world’s healthiest

o  Largely sedentary

o  Use of tobacco is still popular

o  Stress is at epidemic levels (WHO)

o  Alcohol continues to take its toll on Americans

2   Much of the illness in the United States is preventable

o  Tobacco and alcohol are leading causes of death

o  As much as 70 percent of the cost of health care is driven by avoidable illness

3   Health Care costs continue to rise

o  Healthcare premiums continue to rise and to be passed on to the employee

o  Health Care cost are usually the number one benefit cost to most companys

4   The workplace is an ideal establishing to address health and well being

o  Most American Citizens work

o  Poor health habits take a toll on American business

o  Corporations have a vested interest in health related issues.

5   Research validates that health promotion programs can improve health, save money, and even produce a Return On Investment (ROI).

o  Aldana,S.G. (1998). Financial impact of corporate health promotion and methodological quality of the evidence.  The Art of Wellness. Vol 2, Number 1.

o  Wilson, M.G. (1996). A extensive review of the effects of employee wellness on health related outcomes –  an update.  The American Journal of wellness. Vol 10, Number 6.

o  Wilson, M.G. (1996). A comprehensive review of the effects of corporate health promotion on health related outcomes –  an update.  The American Journal of wellness. Vol 11, Number 2.

o  Chapman, L.S. Proof Positive –  an analysis of the cost-effectiveness of corporate health promotion. 3rd ed. Seattle –  Summex Company, 1996.

o  Pelletier, K.R. A review of the health and cost-effective outcomes studies of comprehensive wellness and illness avoidance programs at the worksite –  1993-1995 Update.  The American Journal of Health and Promotion. Vol. 10, Number 5.

Key Components of a Wellness Program

Physical Wellness – Focuses on the development, maintenance, or betterment of one’s fitness

Sample Physical Wellness Programs / Workshops

o  Annual medical screening

o  Regular physical activity

o  Good safety habits

Emotional Wellness – Focuses on all aspects of mental fitness

Sample Emotional Health Promotion Programs / Seminars

o  Stress management workshops

o  Dealing with aging

o  Addictive behaviors

o  Parenting

Financial Wellness – Focuses on improving the quality of life of staff by assisting families and individuals in becoming financially stable

Sample Financial Health Promotion Programs / Workshops

o  Financial management

o  Savings and Investing

o  Credit and Purchasing

o  Insurance and Estate Planning

Spiritual Wellness – Focuses on promoting a healthy inner self

Sample Spiritual Health Promotion Programs / Seminars

o  Be certain to encourage daily devotional readings

o  Give regular service opportunities

o  Give a daily/weekly/monthly chapel (meditation) time during work hours

Nutritional Wellness – Will meet the needs of the personnel through group and individual nutritional services

Sample Nutritional Health Promotion Programs / Seminars

o  Individual nutritional Assessment

o  Individual and group counseling

o  Educational classes

o  Weight loss health promotion programs